Features : : Justice Reinvestment Initiative

Justice Reinvestment Initiative State Data Tracker


ustice reinvestment is a data-driven approach to criminal justice reform designed to examine and address correctional cost and population drivers to generate cost savings that can be reinvested in high-performing public safety strategies. The Justice Reinvestment Initiative (JRI) state data tracker provides information on system-level indicators such as prison, probation, and parole populations and overall state savings and reinvestment. Although these indicators track trends on key JRI objectives, accurate interpretation requires careful consideration of contextual factors, as changes in these measures are affected by a wide range of policies and practices that extend beyond the reforms passed during JRI engagement.

This page was updated in July 2017 to include 2016 population data.

All data
Prison Population
Probation Population
Parole Population
Actual prison population
Baseline prison projection
Separate counts of probation and parole populations were unavailable. Parole was abolished in Delaware in 1985, and the remaining parole population is estimated to be less than 5 percent of the total population, based on Bureau of Justice Statistics data. Population counts are current as of June 30 of each year. Parole and probation counts include those on home confinement (588 in 2015) and do not include those under pretrial supervision.
West Virginia does not maintain state-level probation population counts.

, the prison population was , from . There were people in prison ( ) than experts projected for in the absence of reform.

  • Note: Baseline prison projections were calculated the year before states passed JRI legislation and reflect the expected size of the prison population assuming no changes to policy or practice.

, the probation population was , from .

  • Note: Probation population counts include people supervised at the state level and may or may not include those supervised by localities.

, the parole population was , from .

Savings/Averted Costs*:

State JRI Investment**:

Georgia invested more than $17.5 million upfront into accountability courts, substance abuse programs and risk assessment tool development.
Georgia invested more than $17.5 million upfront into accountability courts, substance abuse programs and risk assessment tool development.
Limited to state-reported figures through September 2016
** Includes up-front investment and subsequent reinvestment from savings and averted costs

More About

About This project

Download sources and methodological notes.

This project was supported by Grant No. 2015-ZB-BX-K005 awarded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance. The Bureau of Justice Assistance is a component of the Department of Justice’s Office of Justice Programs, which also includes the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, the Office for Victims of Crime, and the SMART office. Points of view or opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent the official position or policies of the US Department of Justice.

Project Credits

The views expressed are those of the authors and should not be attributed to the Urban Institute, its trustees, or its funders. Funders do not determine our research findings or the insights and recommendations of our experts. More information on our funding principles is available here. Read our terms of service here.


Samantha Harvell and Jeremy Welsh-Loveman

Design and Development

John Wehmann and Ben Chartoff


Daniel Matos

Copyright © Urban Institute July 2017. View this project on Github.